Community-based Supervision

Collecting data and sharing practices from around the world1

Our initial data collection efforts seek to document if countries2 have community supervision practices in place (Yes, No, In-Design, or Unknown), key highlights3 and related links for these countries about their efforts. Below, select and expand any of the regions to see what we’ve learned about countries from that area.

Status SummaryNumberPercentage
YES - Community-based supervision is offered10755%
In-Design - Programs are currently being designed but not offered53%
Unknown - Information is not yet available7337%
No - Supervision is not offered at this time within the community105%

CountryStatusHighlightsSupporting Sites
Algeria YESAlgiers offers a centralized reintegration site for the on-going support of released individualsMinistry of Justice Prison and Reintegration Sector
Kenya YESCommunity supervision is governed by the Ministry of Interior & Coordination of National Government, State Department for Correctional ServicesProbation and Aftercare Service
NamibiaYESThe Namibian Correctional Service’s Strategic Plan includes public education about rehabilitative services and the benefits of community engagement. Amidst a family/collective society culture, the lack of negative stigma for reentry clients may explain low recidivism rates. Current activities can be found at
The Namibian Correctional Service
Nigeria YESIn Nigeria, a two-day retreat was held to review, reflect, and improve the correctional service’s performance. The public was able to weigh in opportunities to create a better version of offenders.OsunDefender article
South Africa YESSouth Africa is in the process of digitizing and modernizing the judiciary system. Changes include video conferencing to be used for interviews and testimonies when direct contact is not necessary or feasible.BusinessTech article
Benin Unknown
Burkina FasoNoAmnesty programs possible during national holidays
Burundi Unknown
Cabo VerdeUnknown
Central African Republic Unknown
Chad Unknown
Cote D’Ivoire (Ivory Coast)YES
Democratic Republic of the CongoUnknown
Egypt Unknown
Equatorial Guinea Unknown
Eswatini (Swaziland)YES
Ethiopia YES
Gambia (Republic of the)Unknown
Libya Unknown
Madagascar Unknown
Malawi YES
Mali No
Mauritania No
Mauritius Unknown
Morocco YES
Mozambique YES
Rwanda YESA Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) facility has been handed over to the Rwanda Correctional Service by Interpeace. See how offenders can acquire hands-on skills that contribute to their effective reintegration, reduce recidivism, and foster social cohesion. Interpeace  article
São Tomé and Príncipe Unknown
Senegal NoAmnesty programs possible during national holidays
Seychelles Unknown
Sierra LeoneUnknown
South Sudan No
Sudan Unknown
Tanzania (United Republic of)YES
Togo Unknown
Uganda YES
Zambia Unknown
Zimbabwe No

Americas - Central

CountryStatusHighlightsSupporting Sites
BarbadosYESIn Barbados, almost four dozen inmates will participate in technical and vocational training programs. These free programs include training in hospitality, digital media, beauty therapy and social services.Barbados Today article
Belize In-DesignDirect sentencing, probation, and parole are available. Implementation low due to pending processes and lack of resources. Members of the Belize Police Department, Central Prison and magistrate court system were delivered a presentation by an American professor with over 25 years of experience in the criminal justice system. Community supervision services provided by the Belize Central Prison 

Amandala news article
Costa Rica YESCosta Rica’s Casas de Justicia aims to bring justice closer to the communities as support for conflict resolution is provided through negotiation and mediation.Ministry of Justice and Peace
Jamaica YESStand Up For Jamaica’s goal is to enhance and maintain the human rights of all, specifically from vulnerable groups such as inmates. They offer classes in correctional centers from remedial level to high school and provide teachers, books and laptops.Stand Up for Jamaica
Saint Lucia YESSt.Lucia was provided equipment so that officers can record interviews with witnesses and suspects. This will be more efficient than written interviews and also enhance transparency and accountability in the process.St. Lucia Loop News article
Trinidad and TobagoYESGoverned by the Ministry of National SecurityProbation Services
Antigua and BarbudaUnknown
Bahamas In-Design
Cuba Unknown
Dominican Republic YES
El SalvadorYES
Guatemala YES
Haiti No
Honduras YES
Panama YES
Saint Kitts and Nevis Unknown
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesUnknown

Americas - North

CountryStatusHighlightsSupporting Sites
CanadaYESCanada has launched the “Federal Framework to Reduce Recidivism” which aims to break the cycle of reoffending, support rehabilitation, and make the communities safer for everyoneCanadian Lawyer article
United States of AmericaYESIn Florida, new legislation enables people on state probation and community control to be eligible to shorten probation terms by pursuing a GED, degree or vocational certification, and/or maintain full time employment.PR Newswire article
Mexico YES

Americas - South

CountryStatusHighlightsSupporting Sites
Argentina YES
Bolivia YESIn Bolivia, inmates have the opportunity to get out of jail days or weeks early in exchange for reading. The “Books Behind Bars” program has been launched in 47 prisons and has had 867 participants. TBS News article
Brazil YESThe Brazilian prison system faces many challenges, including overcrowding and a high incarceration rate. Secretary of State for Prison and Socio-Educational Administration, Leandro Lima explains how they tackle addressing needed changes. Justice Trends article
Chile YES
Colombia YES
Peru YES
Uruguay YES
Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofUnknown


CountryStatusHighlightsSupporting Sites
Singapore YESSingapore’s Home Team Community Assistance and Referral Scheme partners social workers with people incarcerated to help identify the issues that led to crime and refer them to suitable agencies. HT Cares is expanding to help next of kin. **Singapore Prison Service’s tagline: “Rehab, Renew, Restart” emphasizes commitment to rehabilitate inmates who desire to change, renew and restart their lives for the better, and garner the support of the community.The Straits Times article
**Singapore Prison Service
Bangladesh YESLaw allows probation as alternative sentence to incarceration, but implementation is difficult due to few P.O.s. Community supervision is governed by the Department of Social Services.
Department of Social Services
India YESIn India, the Chennai City Police’s pilot program “PARAVAI” (Personality Attitude Reformation Assistance Venture Affirming Identity) goal is to prevent recidivism and re-arrest among first time offenders.The Hindu article
IsraelYESAn inter-ministerial panel tasked with finding alternative forms of correction in Israeli suggested “community custody”, advancing restorative justice programs and creating programs to help formerly incarcerated individuals reenter into society.The Times of Israel article
Japan  YESVolunteer Probation Officers (VPO) Program is governed by the Ministry of Justice. **New legislation allows offenders to work, provides counseling to help with rehabilitation, and more education programs to teach skills needed for reentry. Ministry of Justice 
**The Asahi Shimbun article
Malaysia YESBy 2030, about 60% of Malaysian incarcerated individuals will be released to serve the remainder of their sentence on parole. The Sun Daily article
Pakistan YESIncarcerated individuals in Pakistan’s Sindh Prison Department have the opportunity to take an introductory six month Chinese language course as well as other courses prior to release.Tribune article
Philippines YESCommunity supervision is governed by the Department of JusticeParole and Probation Administration
Afghanistan Unknown
Armenia YESIn Armenia, two new toolkits will enable prison staff to perform a better initial screenings of inmates. The goal is to prevent suicide cases and reveal early self-harm behavior and the possible risks as well as screen and address mental health issues. Council of Europe
Azerbaijan YES
Bhutan Unknown
Brunei YESPrisons in Brunei offer several programs for spirituality, counseling, physical therapy, and vocational training, which support the Rehabilitation and Reintegration Division’s mission to offer effective opportunities for released individuals.Borneo Bulletin article
Cambodia In-Design
China YES
Indonesia YES
Iran Unknown
Iraq Unknown
Kazakhstan YES
Korea, Democratic People’s Republic ofUnknown
Korea, Republic of (South)YES
Kuwait Unknown
Kyrgyzstan In-Design
Lebanon Unknown
Maldives Unknown
Mongolia Unknown
Myanmar YES
Nepal Unknown
Palestine Unknown
Qatar Unknown
Saudi ArabiaUnknown
Sri Lanka Unknown
Syrian Arab RepublicUnknown
Taiwan YES
Tajikistan Unknown
Thailand YES
Turkey YES
United Arab Emirates Unknown
Uzbekistan Unknown
Viet Nam In-Design
Yemen Unknown


CountryStatusHighlightsSupporting Sites
Austria YES
Belgium YESAround 100 welfare projects will be launched in Belgium. Through the Cellmade employment platform, prisoners provide the funding for these programs from doing work such as carpentry, metalworking, and assembly to product packaging and book-binding.The Brussels Times article
Croatia YES
Czech Republic YESOffer restorative practices as supervision component via Probation and Mediation Services agencyProbation and Mediation Services    (site offers English translation)
Denmark YES
Estonia YES
Finland YESIn four Finnish prisons, a new program will equip prisoners with the technical skills they need in order to secure work in the modern job market and help them better integrate into society.YLE News article
Germany YES
Greece YES
Hungary YES
Ireland, Republic ofYES
Italy YESIncarcerated individuals with exemplary behavior can apply to the Goronga Penal Institute. Inmates on the island can move around freely and spend most of their time working in Frescobaldi vineyards.Forbes article
Latvia YES
Lithuania YES
Luxembourg YES
Malta YES
Moldova, Republic ofYES
NorwayYESNorway’s response to riots, high recidivism rates and the murder of two correctional officers was a prison system in the 1990s focusing on four key elements: The principle of normality, a focus on humanity, dynamic security and emphasis on reintegration.How Norway’s Prisons are Different from America’s video
Poland YES
Portugal YES
Romania YESIn Romania, the SECURE “Safe and Educated Community Undertaking Responsible Engagement” project analyzes the causes of reoffending. Spaces are dedicated to increase detainees’ responsibility and autonomy, and deliver rehabilitation and reintegration initiatives. Justice Trends article
Slovakia YES
Slovenia YESInterview with Danijela Mrhar Prelić, MSc., Director of the National Probation Service, on setting up a national probation service.Justice Trends article
Spain YES
Sweden YES
Ukraine YES
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandYESIn the UK, formerly incarcerated people working will not only prevent reincarceration but alleviate a shortage of workers. Independent article
Albania YES
Belarus YES
Bosnia and Herzegovina Unknown
Cyprus YES
Monaco YES
Montenegro YES
North Macedonia YES
Russian FederationYES
San Marino YES

Oceania (Australia, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia)

CountryStatusHighlightsSupporting Sites
AustraliaYESFederal community supervision is governed by the Attorney-General’s Department. **Kanchana Thenuwara taught IT in Pilbara, Australia prisons. She then created an organization to assist prisoners before and after their release with reintegration back to the community. Federal Parole
**SBS Sinhala article
New Zealand YESIn New Zealand, self-care units are residential style accommodations that allow inmates to work in the community during the day but return to prison before evening curfew.Newsroom article
FijiYESThe Fiji Corrections Services’ Yellow Ribbon “Walk for Restoration” had a record turnout. Over 4000 participants, including Prime Minister Voreqe Bainimarama, showed their support for second chances and rehabilitation of incarcerated individuals.Fiji Village article
Papua New GuineaYESCommunity supervision is governed by the Department of Justice & Attorney GeneralParole Services
Probation Services

Solomon Islands Unknown
Vanuatu Unknown
Kiribati Unknown
Marshall IslandsUnknown

  1. Should you discover errors or updates required, please inform us at
  2. We are aware of the many complications inherent in representing countries, nations, jurisdictions, etc. The SAW Project follows the United Nations list of countries.
  3. Identified country “highlights” are chosen by the SAW Project in consultation with a variety of local sources.